• <output id="qgjlo"><strong id="qgjlo"><xmp id="qgjlo"></xmp></strong></output>

      1. <p id="qgjlo"></p>

        <object id="qgjlo"></object>
        <table id="qgjlo"><strike id="qgjlo"><b id="qgjlo"></b></strike></table>
      2. 中英雙語:國際商事爭端預防與解決組織面面觀
        中英雙語:國際商事爭端預防與解決組織面面觀
        2020/11/17 15:08:33  點擊率[720]  評論[0]
        【法寶引證碼】
          【學科類別】國際商法
          【出處】微信公眾號: 全面依法治國研究院
          【寫作時間】2020年
          【中文關鍵字】國際商事;爭端;解決機制
          【全文】

            2020年10月15日,國際商事爭端預防與解決組織(International Commercial Dispute Prevention and Settlement Organization,ICDPASO)在中國北京宣布成立。作為一家民間性的非政府間國際組織,ICDPASO將為世界各國提供商事仲裁、商事調解、投資仲裁、爭端預防等法律服務。
           
            On 15 Oct. 2020, the International Commercial Dispute Prevention and Settlement Organization (ICDPASO) was established in Beijing, China. As a non-governmental international organization, ICDPASO will provide legal services including commercial arbitration, commercial mediation, investment arbitration and dispute prevention for countries/regions around the globe.
           
            一、背景:國際商事爭議解決機制的創新
           
            I. Background: innovation of the international commercial dispute settlement mechanism
           
            2018年1月23日,中央全面深化改革領導小組第二次會議通過了《關于建立“一帶一路”爭端解決機制和機構的意見》(以下簡稱《意見》)。[1]該意見指出,構建國際爭端解決機構、建立訴訟、調解與仲裁銜接的多元化解決解決機制,對優化國際商貿與投資環境、為“一帶一路”保駕護航具有重要意義。
           
            The Opinions on Establishing ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ Dispute Settlement Mechanism and Organization (關于建立“一帶一路”爭端解決機制和機構的意見) (hereinafter referred to as “the Opinions”) was passed on the second session of the Comprehensively Deepening Reform Leadership Group of CCCPC on 23 Jan. 2018. According to the Opinions, in order to further improve the international trade/investment environment and safeguard the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), it’s of significant importance to establish an international dispute settlement organization, as well as a diversified dispute settlement mechanism featuring a synergetic use of litigation, mediation, and arbitration.
           
            根據上述《意見》,中國國際貿易促進委員會(China Council for the Promotion of International Trade,CCPIT)歷經4年時間,牽頭組建了ICDPASO。ICDPASO立足于“民間發起、政府支持推動”的民間性性質定位,其志在成為服務于“一帶一路”需求的國際商事爭端解決組織。
           
            For this purpose, with four-year efforts, the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) successfully facilitates the establishment of ICDPASO. With the “NGO-initiated and government-supported” nature, ICDPASO is committed to becoming an international commercial dispute settlement organization catering to the BRI.
           
            與現有的其他國際商事爭議解決機制相比,ICDPASO還具有如下創新性的特征:(1)除了爭端的事后解決外,還重視爭端預防;(2)除了將國際商事爭議納入受案范圍外,還將投資者與國家間爭端納入受案范圍;(3)除了以仲裁方式解決爭端外,還重視調解在化解爭端方面的獨特作用。。
           
            Compared with other existing international commercial dispute settlement mechanisms, ICDPASO is featured by the following innovation: (1) in addition to dispute settlement, ICDPASO also attaches importance to dispute prevention; (2) ICDPASO not only accepts international commercial disputes, but also disputes between investors and countries; (3) apart from arbitration, ICDPASO also values the role of mediation in dispute settlement.
           
            二、ICDPASO的設立方案
           
            II. The design of ICDPASO
           
            (一)機構命名的主要考慮:包容性與開放性
           
            1. Name of the organization: inclusiveness and openness
           
            ICDPASO的命名體現了其服務范圍,即立足于國際視野,同時聚焦于商事爭端。首先,其名稱中,不附加“一帶一路”字樣。因為CCPIT希望,其受案范圍在側重“一帶一路”沿線國的同時,但是又不嚴格局限于此。其次,該機構不僅僅提供仲裁、調解等爭端解決服務,還對潛在爭端進行預防。基于此,機構名稱定為“國際商事爭端預防與解決組織”。
           
            The naming of ICDPASO mirrors its service scope, that is, not only having an international perspective, but also focusing on commercial disputes. First of all, CCPIT excludes the expression of “the Belt and Road”, because ICDPASO is designed to handle disputes focusing on but not limited to those from countries along the BRI. Secondly, ICDPASO not only provides dispute settlement services such as arbitration and mediation, but also highlights the dispute prevention. Therefore, the official name is determined as “International Commercial Dispute Prevention and Settlement Organization”.
           
            (二)機構性質的主要考慮:國際性與公益性
           
            2. Nature of the organization: internationality and non-profit
           
            ICDPASO屬于一家非政府間國際組織。CCPIT的目的在于:首先,突出其國際性,避免被視為專屬于某一國家的國內機構,從而與中國各地現有的仲裁委員會區分開來;其次,強調其公益性,即它并非以營利為目的的公司,而是以服務于國際經貿、商事與投資爭端的當事人為宗旨、以預防及化解國際爭端為目標的機構。
           
            Firstly, CCPIT hopes to highlight ICDPASO’s internationality and keep it from being regarded as a domestic institution exclusive to a certain country. In this sense, ICDPASO distinguishes itself from other existing arbitration institutions in China.
           
            Secondly, CCPIT wants to distinguish it from a company. With its non-profit nature, ICDPASO is an organization dedicating to serving the parties involved in international economic and trade, commercial and investment disputes, as well as preventing and resolving international disputes.
           
            此外,ICDPASO并非政府發起的政府間國際組織,而是由CCPIT發起。原因是政府間國際組織需以各國所簽署的國際條約作為成立基礎,而短期內促成各國談判條約的難度較大。CCPIT也稱中國國際商會,由其發起設立ICDPASO,相比之下更具可行性。
           
            In addition, ICDPASO is not an intergovernmental international organization initiated by the governments, which entails the international treaties as the basis and is therefore difficult to be established within the short term. Instead, it is a non-governmental international organization initiated by CCPIT (also known as China International Chamber of Commerce), which is obviously more feasible.
           
            (三)服務范圍:仲裁、調解、預防三位一體
           
            3. Service scope: arbitration, mediation and dispute prevention all in one
           
            ICDPASO提供的案件服務包括商事仲裁、投資仲裁、爭端預防、商事調解等,從而發揮多種爭端解決機制的優勢。這體現為,首先,其吸收了傳統國際爭端解決機構的經驗,其次,其發揮了東方文化的特征,即強調談判、調解,再次,其引入爭端預防等創新。
           
            ICDPASO provides diversified dispute settlement mechanisms, such as commercial arbitration, investment arbitration, dispute prevention, commercial mediation, etc. This is reflected in the following aspects: firstly, it draws on the experience of traditional international dispute settlement institutions; secondly, it gives full play to the Oriental culture, that is, it values negotiation and mediation; thirdly, it introduces the dispute prevention mechanism.
           
            ICDPASO希望克服現有爭端解決機構在運行中存在的問題,促進國際爭端預防與解決的深入協調發展。
           
            ICDPASO hopes to overcome the operation problems of existing dispute settlement institutions, as well as to promote the development of international dispute prevention and settlement.
           
            三、ICDPASO的理念
           
            III. ICDPASO’s pursuit
           
            (一)民間性
           
            1. Non-government
           
            ICDPASO為非政府間國際組織,相比之下,International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes則是政府間國際組織。因此,ICDPASO將會更加中立,也將會更有利于贏得商事主體的信任。
           
            Compared with the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes, an intergovernmental international organization, ICDPASO enjoys a non-government nature and will be more impartial and more likely to win the trust of commercial entities.
           
            ICDPASO的發起人CCPIT,是一個受政府支持的非政府組織。但是,CCPIT對ICDPASO的設立和運行提供人才和經驗,且不會干預該機構的日常具體事務。ICDPASO對其受理的案件將收取一定的費用,但其不以營利為目的,該費用只是用于其發展。
           
            CCPIT, the initiator of ICDPASO, is an NGO supported by the government. Although CCPIT provides talent resources and operation experience for the establishment and operation of ICDPASO, it will not interfere with the specific daily affairs of ICDPASO. ICDPASO will charge a certain fee for the cases it accepts, but this is not for profit-making but only for self-development purposes.
           
            (二)國際性
           
            2. Internationality
           
            ICDPASO具有規則和原則上的國際性,能夠克服現有中國法律中存在的不確定性因素。
           
            The rules and principles of ICDPASO are of an international nature, which enables it to overcome some uncertainties in the existing Chinese laws.
           
            中國本國的仲裁制度存在與國際通行仲裁制度的少量差異。但是,ICDPASO能則可以創新仲裁規則,特別是對國際通行的仲裁規則進行吸收與接納。此外, ICDPASO允許當事人選擇使用中文、英文或其他語種,從而便于不同法系的法律執業者。
           
            There are a few differences between China’s arbitration system and the international arbitration system. However, ICDPASO can innovate its arbitration rules, especially, it can absorb international arbitration rules. In addition, ICDPASO allows the parties to choose to settle disputes in Chinese, English or other languages, thus facilitating legal practitioners from different legal systems.
           
            (三)公正性
           
            3. Impartiality
           
            ICDPASO對發展中國家的訴求給予充分關注,提升爭端解決機制的公正性。
           
            ICDPASO pays full attention to the demands of developing countries and improves the impartiality of its dispute settlement mechanism.
           
            當前的國際投資仲裁,側重于維護外國投資者利益,而對東道國特別是發展中國家的實際情況有所忽視,因此其對發展中國家實質上是不利的。[2]
           
            At present, the international investment arbitration focuses more on safeguarding the interests of foreign investors, while sometimes neglecting the actual situation of host countries, especially developing countries.
           
            ICDPASO將吸收更多發展中國家的仲裁員、調解員、理事會成員,從而提升發展中國家在國際爭端解決中的話語權。
           
            In view of this, ICDPASO will absorb more arbitrators, mediators and council members from developing countries, so as to give a greater say in developing countries in international dispute settlement.
           
            與此同時,ICDPASO還會綜合運用預防與調解等機制,從而合理平衡當事人之間的利益,提升爭端解決結果的實質公正性。
           
            At the same time, ICDPASO will also tactfully utilize prevention and mediation mechanisms to balance the interests of the parties and enhance the substantive fairness of the dispute settlement results.
           
            值得注意的是,在投資仲裁及商事仲裁中,ICDPASO設置了選擇性上訴機構,從而將仲裁員個人因素對仲裁結果的不利影響降至最低。這體現了其重視公正地解決與公共利益相關的爭端。
           
            It should be noted that in investment and commercial arbitration, ICDPASO has set up an optional appellate body, so as to minimize the adverse impact of the arbitrator’s personal factors on the arbitration results. This reflects its emphasis on the impartial settlement of disputes related to the public interest.
           
            四、ICDPASO的業務特點
           
            IV. ICDPASO’s business features
           
            (一)注重調解
           
            1. Valuing mediation
           
            ICDPASO將發揮中國傳統文化“定分止爭” 及以和為貴,即發揮調解的作用,以促進爭端的高效解決。
           
            With full consideration of Chinese traditional culture “end the dispute and resolve the divergence”(定分止爭) and “harmony comes first”(以和為貴), ICDPASO will give full play to mediation to promote the efficient settlement of disputes.
           
            現有的國際爭端解決機制大多注重“定分”而非“止爭”,這種訴訟化的爭端解決機制事實上違背了仲裁機構設立的初衷,[3]不利于商事主體維護可持續的商事合作關系,特別是不利于中小企業在國際爭端中的利益維護。
           
            By contrast, most of the existing international dispute settlement mechanisms focus on “end the dispute” rather than “resolve the divergence”. In fact, this litigation-like dispute settlement mechanism goes against the original intention of arbitration institutions, which is not conducive to the maintenance of sustainable commercial cooperation between commercial entities, especially unfavorable to the interests of SMEs in international disputes.
           
            中國文化強調以和為貴,因此中國國內的糾紛解決機制長期以來一直注重調解。ICDPASO在借鑒國內外調解經驗的基礎上,在調解人員、調解程序、調解規則等方面進行創新,從而確保調解的中立性、透明度、公正性和高效性。
           
            As the Chinese old saying “harmony comes first”, the dispute settlement mechanism in China has been focusing on mediation for ages. Based on the experience of mediation at home and abroad, ICDPASO innovates in mediation personnel, mediation procedures and mediation rules, so as to ensure the neutrality, transparency, impartiality and efficiency of mediation.
           
            此外,ICDPASO也將建立調解與仲裁的銜接及轉換機制,從而克服單一化爭端解決機制的弊端,進一步提升爭端解決的效率。
           
            In addition, ICDPASO will also establish the connection and synergetic cooperation  between mediation and arbitration, in order to overcome the disadvantages of a single dispute settlement mechanism and further improve the efficiency.
           
            (二)重視預防
           
            2. Appreciating prevention
           
            ICDPASO注重事先預防,從而為國際商事主體大幅度降低法律風險。
           
            ICDPASO attaches importance to dispute prevention, so as to greatly reduce the legal risk faced by international commercial entities.
           
            現有爭端解決機構對爭端預防鮮有關注。CCPIT則希望在深入分析各國經貿、投資的法律規則的基礎上,建立爭端預防機制,從源頭上減少糾紛的發生。
           
            The existing dispute settlement institutions pay little attention to dispute prevention. However, CCPIT hopes to establish a dispute prevention mechanism based on an in-depth analysis of the trade and investment rules of various countries, trying to reduce the occurrence of disputes from the source.
           
            (三)節約成本
           
            3. Cost saving
           
            ICDPASO重視時間與費用成本的控制。
           
            ICDPASO attaches importance to the control of time and cost.
           
            近年來,國際商事仲裁案件的費用與時間陡然增加。 ICDPASO參考了2007年國際商事仲裁委員會發布的《控制仲裁時間與成本的方法》,在控制時間與管理費用成本上進行了創新性,例如引入了快速駁回程序、緊急仲裁員程序、允許仲裁庭對費用進行酌定等。
           
            In recent years, the cost and time of international commercial arbitration cases have increased sharply. By referring to ICC Arbitration Commission Report on Techniques for Controlling Time and Costs in Arbitration (2007), ICDPASO has made innovations in controlling time and administrative cost, such as the introduction of expedited dismissal procedures, emergency arbitrator procedures, discretion of the arbitral tribunal on cost allocation, etc.
           
            五、總結
           
            V. Conclusion
           
            ICDPASO迎合了國際爭端解決機制的最新發展趨勢,彌補現有爭端解決機制的不足,在具體案件中能夠促進爭端的高效、公正解決。
           
            ICDPASO caters to the latest development trend of the international dispute settlement mechanism, makes up for the shortcomings of the existing dispute settlement mechanism, and therefore promotes the efficient and fair settlement of specific disputes.
           
            在理念上,它堅持非政府性和非營利性,并輔之以政府支持;其規則和原則是國際化特征,從而提升當事人對中心的信任度;對發展中國家的利益給予充分關注,從而提升爭端解決的實質公平。
           
            In terms of vision and pursuits, ICDPASO insists on its non-government and non-profit nature, with government support; to gain the parties’ trust, its rules and principles are international-oriented; and to increase substantive fairness, it pays full attention to the interests of developing countries.
           
            在具體事務方面,它注重發揮調解在爭端解決機制中的作用,并創新調解規則和程序;重視爭端預防機制,突出各種爭端解決機制的銜接和綜合運用;其建立了新的機制,以減少當事人的時間成本和費用成本。
           
            In terms of specific affairs, ICDPASO values the role of mediation in the dispute settlement mechanism, and innovates mediation rules and procedures; it attaches importance to the dispute prevention mechanism and highlights the connection and synergetic cooperation among multiple dispute settlement mechanisms; it establishes new mechanisms to reduce the time and cost of the parties.

          【作者簡介】
          張建,首都經濟貿易大學講師。
          【注釋】
          [1] 《關于建立“一帶一路”爭端解決機制和機構的意見》提出,要建立“一帶一路”爭端解決機制和機構,要堅持共商共建共享原則,依托我國現有司法、仲裁和調解機構,吸收、整合國內外法律服務資源,建立訴訟、調解、仲裁有效銜接的多元化糾紛解決機制,依法妥善化解“一帶一路”商貿和投資爭端,平等保護中外當事人合法權益,營造穩定、公平、透明的法治化營商環境
          [2] See Fabien Besson, Racem Mehdi, Is WTO Dispute Settlement System Biased Against Developing Countries? An Empirical Analysis, available at https://ecomod.net/sites/default/files/document-conference/ecomod2004/199.pdf.
          [3] See 楊玲:《國際商事仲裁程序研究》,法律出版社2011年版,第196-197頁。

          本網站文章僅代表作者個人觀點,不代表本網站的觀點與看法。
          轉載請注明出自北大法律信息網
        0
        北大法律信息網
        www.chinalawinfo.com
        法律動態
        網站簡介
        合作意向
        網站地圖
        隱私政策
        版權聲明
        北大法寶
        www.pkulaw.cn
        法寶動態
        法寶優勢
        經典客戶
        免費試用
        產品服務
        專業定制
        購買指南
        郵件訂閱
        法律會刊
        北大英華
        www.pkulaw.com
        英華簡介
        主要業務
        產品列表
        英華網站
        聯系我們
        用戶反饋
        返回頂部
        二維碼
        不要添了,我高潮了视频